The Child has :
Has difficulty following spoken or written instructions
Does not know what is expected of them when given oral instructions that are not complete
Cannot copy notes from the board accurately
Has difficulty copying geometric designs
Cannot explain "cause and effect" in a picture of a scene or a story, or predict what may happen next
Can remember more information when hearing it read aloud or discussed than when they read it silently to themselves
Can do a learning task better if they can see it and handle the parts first
Can answer questions orally, but poorly in writing
Freezes up when asked to give hand-written answers in sentences, paragraphs or essays
Has difficulty with spelling, punctuation, grammar and writing.
Cannot focus on a few ideas at a time, so cannot stay on task.
Has difficulty memorizing poems
Children in this category tend to phonetically spell words:
They will have difficulty with vowels and vowel combinations. For example, instead of spelling "them" they will spell it "thm", or "red" instead of "read".
They will work very hard to study their spelling words for their spelling test. They may get many or hardly any correct on the test. They will then forget the ones they did get right by the next week or cannot spell them correctly in sentences they write the same week.
Makes anagrams of words e.g. "tired" for "tried", "wives" for "views"
Their spelling tends to be worse than their reading.
They also will have great difficulty on a spelling test when the words are read to them in a different order from when they studied them.
They continually misspell common sight words which are also called service words such as "they, what, where, does and because".
They will misspell copying something from a book, worksheet or the whiteboard.
They usually are erasing and crossing out extensively in their work.
They spell the same words many different ways, often on the same worksheet.
They misspell many words - especially simple one syllable words ,conversely they often are able to spell words that are longer more complicated words.
Unable to identify the appropriate letter when given a sound and vice versa
The child is not able to memorize multiplication tables
Does not understand the concept of time
Cannot understand simple fractions, such as half a cup of sugar or three quarters of a glass of lemonade or one quarter of an apple.
Has difficulty with Long Division in mathematics or just does not understand it
The Child does not understand flat, two-dimensional drawings as opposed to three-dimensional views of actual objects.
May be confused by similar-looking mathematical signs; e.g., + and - ; < (less than) and > (greater than)
May not be able to tell time correctly up to ten / twelve years of age.
Cannot understand measurements: weights, linear, volume or quantity.
Fractions, percentages or decimals may pose a problem to understand.
Dyslexic children reverse numbers, such as reading or writing “17” for “71”
Transpose numbers i.e., 752 for 572; or transcribe their answers wrongly
Cannot understand money unless taught by holding the coins and bills in their hands and actually buying something
Cannot do simple mathematical word problems without referring to pictures, concrete objects or counting on their fingers
Confuses verb tenses may mix up: see, saw, seeing.
Reads slowly and below grade level
Continues having many reading problems as they move through the grades.
Does not seem to understand what he or she has read.
Has difficulty hearing and repeating words of another language
Has problems understanding and spelling abstract words, especially those about time and place
Mispronounces or misreads many words
Decodes words too slowly while reading and loses comprehension
Has an inadequate reading vocabulary
Numerous spelling errors in a piece of work and may spell the same word in several different ways.
Confuses similar sounding words when spelling, e.g. "one" and "won"
Poor standard of written work compared to oral ability
Messy, badly organised work
Has trouble copying from the board in class
Letters, syllables and words omitted, inserted or placed in the wrong order
Mixes capital and small letter within words e.g., dysLexiA
Lack of punctuation, or totally inappropriate use of punctuation
Cannot write in a straight line
Fears having to read aloud in class
Has difficulty remembering content just read in a story
Has difficulty remembering information just read in a list
Requires more time to read or answer questions than other students
Has difficulty tracking a printed line across the page
Memory – Short Term and Working Menory
The child requires frequent reminders before they remember to learn and understand how to do something.
The child may have difficulty remembering multiple-step instructions
The child can display excellent long-term memory for movies, experiences, locations and faces, but poor memory for sequences as well as unfamiliar facts and information
Speech related Issues
There is a strong possibility of delayed speech
Difficulty expressing thoughts and may communicate more with gestures rather than words
Difficulty finding the words he/she wants to use
People who do not know the child well have difficulty understanding what he/she says
Mispronounces long words, or transposes phrases and words when speaking
Difficulty attaching names to things and people
Children who go unidentified through their school years and who are not provided the correct remedial therapy may display the following when they reach college level.
Read very slowly with many inaccuracies
Continue to spell incorrectly, frequently spells the same word differently in a single piece of writing
Avoid reading and writing tasks
Have trouble summarizing and outlining
Display trouble answering open-ended questions on tests
Lack logical sequence of thoughts when discussing or writing essays
Does not stay on task well and gives up easily.
Has difficulty picking out the main points in a paragraph or essay.
Tend to go off on tangents when discussing or writing about a topic.
Childern can also;
Exhibit poor memory skills
Pay too little attention to details or focus too much on them
They rend to misread information that is presented to them.
Even though they are in college they have an inadequate vocabulary
Due to early inadequate intervention and shying away from studying they may have an inadequate store of knowledge from past reading
Display difficulty with planning, organizing and managing time, materials and tasks. The hostel room of such a student would be messy and disorganized.