Dyslexia
 
 
TM
T.R.A.I.N
TM
 

Neuroplasticity

 
Remediation Response

T.R.A.I.N – ing The Brain

Rewiring Brains
T.R.A.I.N & ADHD
T.R.A.I.N - ing Fluid
Intelligence
T.R.A.I.N™ - ing Crystallized Intelligence

T.R.A.I.N™ - ing Handwriting

T.R.A.I.N
 

Handwriting

For those children who commenced the T.R.A.I.N™ programme of Cognitive Neuroplasticity with the Dyslexia Association of India™, there has been an immense increase of not only cognitive enhancement but also during the course of the Intervention we are observing enhancements, both in tasks that demand maximal levels of motor output, and also in those tasks that require the learning of action sequences, leading to what we believe is the augmentation of activity which normally is a functional correlate of the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to the body part.

These observable changes have persisted beyond the cessation of Neuroplasticity based intervention, and we believe that these changes will extend beyond the respective homologues of the areas engaged in the training.

The extent of the induced variation is surprisingly higher than the level of the efferent drive that was demonstrated by the children during the training which – observationally leads us to believe that the level of Plasticity that the childs brain can demonstrate is significantly higher IF the correct impetus can be provided to the exact cognitive area that needs enhancement and can form a determining influence on the level of cross education exhibited by the opposite body part.

What we are observing is that along with Cognitive enhancement there is a high degree of cross education of motor function for the children who undergo the T.R.A.I.N™ Neuroplasticity programme and this may be mediated by mechanisms acting via neural pathways projecting from areas upstream of the primary motor cortices.

As the learnt benefits are long lasting and being seen over a period of 6-9 months after intervention ceased - we believe that it is not simple crossed facilitation that is the instrumental force behind this improved motor performance and that this is not simple - transfer of performance.

A high degree of evidence points to the possibility that cross education effects are being mediated, by adaptations in the interneuronal networks with changes in the state of specific interneuronal networks, which may possibly play a role in the manner in which in which they receive stronger and accurate synaptic drive from the modality of training provided to the children by the DAI™.

As Neuroplasticity eventually comes down to the synaptic level we believe that the synaptic drive to the networks we have targeted are occurring not only during voluntary actions, but also in non-physiological contexts, which are indicative of measures of interhemispheric inhibition.

The transfer of information and focused interhemispheric connectivity from the hemisphere which is being trained to the hemisphere which is – to say untrained is being expressed during the course of a month of Neuroplasticity based unimanual training sessions and chronically over multiple sessions.

The degree of cross education cannot occur via adaptive changes in hemispheric information flow. It has to happen only if there are alterations in interneuronal circuits local to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the target training area.

The Neurocognitive Training of the Dyslexia Association of India™ rests also on the platform that cognitive and motor based enhancement go hand in hand and that both in the context of tasks that require maximal levels of motor output, and in those where we specially emphasize the learning of cognitive and motor action sequences, there are demands imposed upon the functional capacities of specific brain regions that we are well versed with at the DAI™ that will be subject to adaptive pressure during training and bring about marked improvements in a child’s performance at the end of the programme.

Whether it is focusing on Neuroplasticity based intervention that targets the cingulate motor area which handles the limbic influence on the voluntary motor system, or the SMA that manages requirements for movement planning, both in relation to the totality of an action sequence, and with respect to the individual elements of that sequence – our programme is so focused that changes are visually observable.

Over a period of time the relative contributions of these regions should increase as we are seeing in the performance of these children in accordance with specific task parameters that are being delivered to them, but will also stay and become concrete over a period of time as the adaptations that form the basis of the T.R.A.I.N™ programme are which incorporate a high degree of cross education - are consolidated.

The reciprocal interactions between the motor areas of the brain and the cognitive exercises we impart in conjunction as a part of a holistic Neurodevelopmental Curriculum as we provide are probably bridging the gap and integrating the excitatory focus of cortical output to principal components engaged in the motor task via modifications of surround inhibition.

Besides the specificity to homologue areas of motor based limbic systems which are engaged by us in the intervention programme, the possible concurrent and contingent adaptations which may be induced ipsilateral to the parts being trained should be functional and not incidental – the reason being that surround inhibition is normally instantiated in circuits local to M1, but its modulation during neuroplasticity is mediated by inputs from other nodes of the motor network.

When children have integrated their hemispheric differences via our Intervention the neuronal synaptic drive is automatically directed to these adapted circuits and the result is a pattern of efference characterized by greater specificity in recruitment of the focal motoric parts engaged in a task, and in disengagement of those parts with actions that might otherwise interfere with the desired movement action.
(While we would very much like to share what these “parts” are, these being specific to our Neuroplasticity Programme are copyright and not in the public domain. They are normally explained to the biological caregivers of the child when the child is brought to us at the DAI™ Centre.)

As our Intervention and Remediation is complementary and competitive to natural evolution, the relative contribution of the mechanism to the behavioral effects that are eventually demonstrated by the child are greatest - as enhancements in performance outcomes do not require the composition of novel synergies or the execution of novel action sequences.

As the comparative contributions of inter-hemispheric interactions between elements of the motor network and the cognitive network to the inter cognitive and inter limb transfer of performance are task dependent the targeted increased effort or volition results in superior execution of movements which we believe are a direct result of the bilateral adaptations in neural circuits.

The Neuroplasticity programme of the DAI™ is based on quite an advanced platform - that variations with respect to numerous task dimensions are such that the new activation profiles that will be generated in refashioning cognitive and motoric synergies will ensure that a fixed sequence of actions are reproduced, and lead to consequential changes in the state of projections from disparate regions of the neural network.

The obvious result is better performance, reduced learning difficulties and a more confident child with greater ability at automaticity and biologically these changes come about with consolidation in thalamic and striatal synaptic relays, thereby providing the substrates for retention of cross education.

Bilateral transfer of learning sequences is one of the distinctive features of the T.R.A.I.N™ programme and the areas of activation created by our Intervention which cause sequence learning and sequence learning tasks depend, somewhat on whether the transfer task we have given the child requires that the sequence be executed in the original spatial format or in a mirrored layout.

Using the spatial and the mirrored layout – which preserves the internal coordinated mapping - effectors are engaged so that the spatial pattern is disrupted to a minimum, but additional transformations generate novel synergies so that the already coded engrams that are being utilized are “rewired” to possibly cause a bilateral transfer of sequence of learning.

To know more about the T.R.A.I.N™ programme, please e mail The Dyslexia Association of India™ at (info@dyslexiaindia.org.in) or you can even call us on 88260 – 22886 to speak to us freely and set up an appointment to meet us.

The T.R.A.I.N™ Neuroplasticity Programme is a copyright Programme of the Dyslexia Association of India™ and protected by the relevant provisions of the Copyright Act. Please do not use Information gained from this programme to misrepresent any Instructional course or programme being delivered by a third party Vendor. The T.R.A.I.N™ programme is available only at the DAI™ Intervention Centre and it has not been franchised out to any vendor.

The views expressed in the article and on the website are equivocal And reflect the observations of the Cognitive Neuropsychologists Associated with the association. Readers are reminded that this is a private trust and Observations are not binding on any individual.

   
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